18 Ekim 2009 Pazar

Şart Cümleleri "if"


A condition is something that has to be fulfilled before something else can happen.
Conditional sentences have two parts ;

1) the if clause
2) the main clause

Generally the if clause expresses a condition and the main clause expresses the event or result that might or might have occurred . To start the sentence with the if clause or the main clause does not change the meaning. Yet, we must use a comma as we start the sentence with the if clause.

If I go to İstanbul, I will visit the Topkapı Palace.
If Clause Main Clause

We will go for a walk, if Burhan Bey comes early.
Main Clause If Clause


There are mainly five types of conditional sentences:

a) TYPE 0 => Cause and Effect - Habitual results - Advice/ Commands

If you heat the metal , it expands. (cause and effect )
I can't sleep at night , if I drink coffee. (habitual result )
If you have problems , talk to your teacher. (advice )
Don't wait for me if I am late this evening. (command )

b) TYPE 1 =>True in the present or future.

If the weather is nice, we usually sit in the garden. (Present)
If the weather is nice tomorrow, we will go on a picnic. (Future)
If we don't hurry , the others will go without us.

c) TYPE 2 => Untrue (contrary to fact) in the present or future.

If we were on holiday today ,we would sit in the garden. (Present)
If we were on holiday tomorrow, we would go on a picnic. (Future)
I would go to Japan if I had enough money. ( present )

d) TYPE 3 => Untrue(contrary to fact) in the past.

If the weather had been nice yesterday, we would have gone on a picnic.(past)
I would have told you the whole story if you had asked me. ( past )

e) MIXED TYPE => The past action affecting the present situation.

If you had planned this properly , we wouldn't be in this mess now.
If we had saved more money last year , we would have enough for a holiday today.

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